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   1591 AD - 1595 AD

1591 AD The English authorities in the Dublin Castle under the direction of Elizabeth 1st the Welsh Tudor English Queen, hung 70 Irishmen and Irish women at Ennis / Innis  in Co. Clare in the north - west of the Munster Province, where they had previously constructed a jail and appointed Patrick Morgan as their jailer.  - This year, the English Dublin Castle authorities also put English Episcopalian Planters in to Co. Monaghan / Moynihan in Southern Ulster.

November: Brian O Rourke / The O Rourke from the Heremonian Dal Cuinn Ui Briuin Breifne Sept who had his territory in Co. Leitrim in Northern Connacht was arraigned for High Treason at Middlesex in England, were he refused to recognize Elizabeth 1st or the English court or even plead for mercy, and in December he was hung by the notorious Myler Mac Grath who was now the Church of England Bishop of Cashel, who had tried to also make him give up his Irish Catholic faith. Like so many other sons of the Irish Chiefs, his son, Brian Oge - the Younger O Rourke had been taken as a child from the Connacht Province to England by Sir John Perrot, along with the young Mac William Burke the English appointed Earl of Clan Rickarde, to be reared for an English purpose. Blood will out and they would both fight on opposing sides in the forthcoming Battle of Kinsale between the Irish Septs and the English Military forces in Co. Cork in Southern Munster. After Brian O Rourke Mor had been previously driven out of his Ui Briuin Breifne territory, his son Brian Oge - the Younger O Rourke endeavouring to hold onto his father's territory, tried to accommodate them, but as usual it was all futile, so he really turned against the English, and took up the Irish cause with a vengeance.    

1592 AD Magauran / Mag Shamhrain from Co. Cavan in the Dal Cuinn Ui Briuin O Reilly kingdom of East Breifne in Southern Ulster, who was the Heremonian Dal Cuinn Ui Briuin Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, sought help from the Pope and Philip 11 of Spain to try and bring an end to the never - ending ongoing ethnic and religious persecution carried out under Elizabeth 1st on the Irish population.

    Brian Mac Dermott the Heremonian Dal Cuinn Ui Briuin Ai Ui Maolruanaidh Chief and Prince of Moylurg in Connacht Province, died. 

February 23rd: Donnell Reagh Mac Namara the Heberian Dal gCais Ui Caisin Chief of the West Clan Culien, died this year. (He had been a son of Cuvea Mac Namara, the son of Donough Mac Namara, the son of Rory Mac Namara, the son of Maccon Cean Mor Mac Namara). 

April: The "aged" Aed Dubh O Donnell / The O Donnell abdicated his position, and his young son, Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell became The O Donnell, under the Irish Brehon Law, after he was crowned on the Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Cenel Conaill Inauguration Stone at Carrig - na - Duin. He set himself up in their Donegal Castle and began besieging the English Military forces there, and was to clean up the Co. Donegal / Tyrconnell region of all the English threats. He was to continue on with his resistance right up to the final Battle of Kinsale against the English Military forces in Co. Cork in Southern Munster, together with 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall , his brother - in - law, the previous second English appointed Earl of Tyrone, who was by that time to be The O Niall also in his own right, and was by now more and more beginning to feel his Irish heritage.

 August: The young Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell who was now The O Donnell from the Heremonian Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Cenel Conaill Sept also submitted to the English appointed Lord Deputy in Ireland, in his role as The O Donnell and was taken prisoner by the English authorities in the Dublin Castle to be imprisoned in England for doing so.

     Elizabeth 1sts. English authorities in the Dublin Castle in the The Pale surrounding Dublin in Ireland, gave over the All Hallows ground there, which had been previously the land of the Knight Templars prior to the confiscation of all the property of the Catholic Church in Ireland, for the building of the Episcopalian institution of Trinity College, which was to be mainly constructed from Portland Stone. (It was to be founded on the main principle of no Catholic Irish or Catholic Anglo - Irish allowed in there to be educated).

     The original Anglo - Norman / Anglo - Irish Barrys / de Barri and the Anglo  Norman Anglo - Irish Roches / de Roiste who had their Estates in Co. Cork in Southern Munster by now had become completely Gaelicized ( More Irish then the Irish) and the Old English / Anglo - Irish now sent their children to be reared by the Mere Irish.

      Donough O Brien the English appointed fourth Earl of Thomond, in Co. Clare in the north - west of the Munster Province, who was now only an Irish man in name, assisted Sir Richard Bingham the English Governor of Connacht, to quell the Anglo - Irish Burkes / de Burghos in the Connacht Province. 

December 25th: The young Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell who was now The O Donnell in his own right who had been imprisoned in Bermingham prison in England, escaped and returned to Ireland.

     Sir John Perrot, the previous English Deputy Governor in Ireland, who had carried out Elizabeth 1st's instructions to the letter, and who was possibly her illegitimate half - brother, quarrelled with her, for which she was to execute him this year also in the Tower of London.

1593 AD 125.Turlough Luineach O Niall who had previously been assisted by the English authorities in Ireland to become the present The O Niall in the Ulster Province, abdicated, after being persuaded by 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall the previous English appointed second Earl of Tyrone, who was eager to get on with his intentions of becoming The O Niaill himself, to try and combine the other Irish Septs and drive the English out of Ireland once and for all. (125.Turlough Luineach O Niall had been a disappointment to all and his son, Art O Niall was to take up English honours and become Sir Art O Neill.)

     Grace O Malley the Heremonian Ui Briuin Pirate Queen from Co. Mayo in the mid - west of the Connacht Province, was invited by Elizabeth 1st to England, where she saw herself as her equal, and commented to her that she did not actually do anything physical herself, and she also gave up her son Toby Burke to be reared by her, "As he had Saxon blood," and he was then reared in England as an Episcopalian for an English purpose and later was to become the English Viscount of Mayo in the mid - west of Connacht.   

     Trinity College was opened in Dublin for Episcopalians only, and it wasn't until 200 years later in 1792 AD that an Irish or Anglo - Irish Catholic was allowed to enter the College to receive a degree, and not until 1873 AD that an Irish Catholic was entitled to full rights and endowments in the College, after the Scotsman, William Gladstone had become the Prime Minister of Britain. Under his direction the Catholic Irish were finally in 1869 AD be allowed, under English Law, to legally exist in their own Country of Ireland, although they were the majority still of the population, despite all of the terrible persecutions, confiscations and plantations carried out over the Centuries against them in Ireland. 

       Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell / The O Donnell the Heremonian Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Cenel Conaill Chieftain, allied with his Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Cenel nEogain kinsman, 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall who was now The O Niall in his own right, and Aed / Hugh Maguire / The Maguire his Dal Cuinn Colla Da Crioch cousin, and a 9 Year War of resistance would soon be begun against Elizabeth 1st's continuing ethnic and religious oppression in Ireland.

      In the meantime, Donnell Cam O Sullivan was now the Heberian Eoghanacht Chief of Beare Haven and Bantry in Co. Cork in Southern Munster, where he became The O Sullivan Beare, and his uncle, Sir Owen Sullivan was given Whiddy Island and part of Bantry, while his other uncle, Philip O Sullivan who was their Tanaiste / heir apparent retained Ardea Castle on the River Kenmare. Sir Owen O Sullivan also died this year, and his ambitious son, also Sir Owen Oge - the Younger O Sullivan succeeded to his position as the Lord of Bantry until 1603 AD, with his eye always firmly fixed on the position of The O Sullivan Beare for himself also. 

        Brian Oge - the Younger O Rourke the Heremonian Dal Cuinn Ui Briuin West Breifne Chief who had his territory in Co. Leitrim in Northern Connacht went on the attack against the continuing English oppression, and he besieged Sir Richard Bingham the officious English Governor in Connacht at Ballymote Castle with his Irish forces, and burnt it and 13 of the villages surrounding it down.

1594 AD As it was the official policy of Elizabeth 1st in England, to obliterate all Irishness, so that, "No Irishmen was to know his grandfather," Sir James Ware who was Irish born and therefore Anglo - Irish became an Irish patriot and to this end he employed the scribe O Flaherty for 7 years to write down the History of Ireland, To this end also, during this period the Irish Catholics and Anglo - Irish Episcopalians united to assist the Anglo - Irish Catholic Priest, Luke Wadding in Rome, to keep the History of Ireland for future generations, from being totally obliterated.  

     John Rothe / Rut (red) built the merchant's house, known as Rothe House in Kilkenny in Co. Kilkenny / Ossory in the south - west of Southern Leinster this year. - Edmund Spencer also married Elizabeth Boyle the daughter of the English Earl of Cork.

1595 AD Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell / The O Donnell, while besieging the Connacht Province this year, with his followers including 3,000 mercenaries / bonaghts, used the ford across the River Shannon further to the north at Shannon Bridge in Co. Offaly in the mid - west of Southern Leinster where he came under attack from the English Military forces and some of his men were killed. 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall was ordered by the English authorities in the Dublin Castle in his capacity as the English second Earl of Tyrone to attack the young Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell, which he did reluctantly, but also continued to build up his own forces

      Elizabeth 1st now also styled herself the Duchess of Ulster, claiming descent from the Mortimers, and the original Anglo - Norman de Courcy conquest of that region in Ulidia / Ulaid as well as Co. Antrim and Co. Down there in the Ulster Province. She confiscated 210,000 acres there in Ulster for the transplanting of English Episcopalian planters, and to carry out further ethnic cleansing of the Catholic Irish. With all of this ongoing ethnic and religious aggression against all things Irish and Catholic, the Ulster Irish Chiefs were now even more desperate to survive, and they offered the Crown of Ireland to Phillip II the King of Spain, to assist them to drive the English out of Ireland for good. 

      125.Turlough Luineach O Niall, died, who had previously been the unpopular The O Niall with English assistance, who was a son of 124.Art O Niall, who was a brother to 124.Conn Bacach O Niall who was also previously The O Niall who had become the English appointed first Earl of Tyrone. (They had both been sons of 123.Conn Mor O Niall.) 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall, the son of 125.Ferdoragh O Niall, the oldest son of 124.Conn Bacach O Niall, was the English appointed first Baron of Dungannon in the Ulster Province who had also been appointed the English second Earl of Tyrone, by Elizabeth 1st, following on from his grandfather, 125.Conn Bacach O Niall, believing him to be well and truly in her corner. He had been English Episcopalian reared for an English purpose, and was previously loyal to her cause until he had become more aware of his Irish heritage and what was really going on. In her service, 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall had previously put down an Irish Uprising in the Munster Province, and also another in Co. Monaghan in Southern Ulster,  and because of this she was to allow him 600 paid men each year to serve her purpose in Ireland. From that time on he began to build up a well trained Irish force in Ulster teaching them the art of warfare, and dressed them all in red uniforms, and obtained an amount of lead shot for ammunition by pretending to roof his Dungannon Castle. Also unbeknown to her by now he had been inaugurated by the Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Cenel nEogain Sept as The O Niall in his own right on the Rath of Tullyhogue in Co. Tyrone in Ulster. He had previously been married to the half - sister of the young Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell, which had further re - united the 2 main Dal Cuinn northern Ui Niaill Ulster Septs once again, which would have certainly brought about a greater commitment to his Gaelic Milesian heritage. He now had 1,000 pikemen, 4,000 musketeers and 1.000 cavalry at his disposal.

July: 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall as The O Niall now assumed the role of the outright Irish Chieftain in the Ulster Province, when all of the Irish Chiefs met with him west of Loch Neagh, where he claimed his Irish title through Gaelic ritual, and this was to also make him eligible to gain the High Kingship of Ireland, and to this end he began to spread Irish resistance also into the Munster Province and the Connacht Province. He openly declared his Gaelic interest and that he was against the ongoing English ethnic and religious oppression that was constantly being carried out under the orders of Elizabeth 1st and he was now declared a traitor to the English cause. Together with Aed Ruadh / Red Hugh O Donnell / The O Donnell his young brother - in - law, from Co. Donegal / Tyrconnell in the west of Ulster, he began an all out War against the English Military forces of Elizabeth 1st for the next  9 years beginning with a skirmish at Clontibret. The O Donnells captured Sligo in the north of the Connacht Province securing the north - west approach to Ulster, but a Truce was then called during which time he sought assistance from Spain, which was not forthcoming. He moved his Family and valuables for safety onto a Crannog Fort to the east of Hamilton's Bawn / Monellan in Co. Armagh in the south - east of Ulster, and his cousin and ally Aed / Hugh Maguire / The Maguire the Heremonian Dal Cuinn Colla Da Crioch Chieftain of Co. Fermanagh also defeated the English Military forces there at the Ford of Biscuits near Enniskillen.

October 5th: 126.Aed Dubh / Black Hugh O Niall / The O Niall now personally appealed directly to King Philip 11 of Spain, through Don Carillo, to assist the Irish forces to drive the English and their ongoing persecution out of Ireland once and for all.

      At this time, Duald Mac Firbis was studying with Donnell O Davoren and from there he went to the College of St. Nicholas in Galway City in the south - west of the Connacht Province.

 +On to 1596 AD - 1599 AD                                                

 

                                                                                                                            

 Situated on the western bank of the Hunter River, midway between Muswellbrook and Denman the doorway to the Heart of Australia's "Horse Capital" in the Hunter Valley in New South Wales., Australia.  

                                                                                      John & Sue Markham  

                                    RAINBOW FARMS  603 Roxburgh Road., Muswellbrook., N.S.W. 2333. Australia 

                                                                 02 - 65 479 100 - Fax: 02 - 65 479 102         E - Mail: www.rainbowfarms@bigpond.com                                                                         

                                        Web contact: E - Mail: www.ern.markham@bigpond.com  - Phone:  02 - 65  479 144