RAINBOW FARMS    AUSTRALIA                                            

                                                                                                                                                            Seanchus of Celtic Ireland - 2

                                                                                                                                                                  18000 BC - 8500 BC

18,000 BC The Sea levels were by now the lowest they had been for over 100,000 years, being 460' / 130 metres below there present level due to the huge Ice Sheets that were now covering Canada and Northern Europe, leaving large areas of the Continental Shelf fully exposed, as the thick Glacial Ice had reached it peak, and was now slowly beginning to melt and the Sea levels once again were beginning  to rise.

16,500 BC The Soltruean Culture that had lasted 3,500 years in France was to disappear, and the Magdalenian Culture now began.

15,000 BC Although the Ice Sheets were melting and the seas were rising, it was still possible to physically traverse the territory that extended from France over to Ireland via the land bridge that was in the south, as the Ice continued to melt and recede towards the north of Ireland and Alba / Scottish Highlands.

13,500 BC The Sea levels by now had risen by 131' / 40 metres with many of the lowlands being flooded, due to the increase in water flowing into the surrounding Oceans from the melting Ice Sheets.

12,000 BC Many plants now began to expand their influence throughout Ireland, and for the next 1,000 years it became open meadows, and the land bridge that was previously over the Bering Straits in the Northern Hemisphere disappeared as the Seas continued to rise.

11,000 BC Juniper, (a tough low growing evergreen), appeared in Ireland as it does well on poor soils, and it was then followed by other plant species, and giant deer and reindeer were still crossing over the land bridges into Ireland, that were still in existence from the Albion / Briton region.

10,400 BC The Bolling Interstadial, occurred, which was another short Warmer Period, which was to last for 400 years.

10,000 BC The Bolling Interstadial came to an end, and the Older Dryas Phase, (a period of Intense Cold), began in the Scottish Highlands / Alba and Briton / Albion for the next 200 years, with still no sign of Humans existing in Ireland, but despite this there were great herds of horses and deer  in Ireland at this time, with periods of Glaciation re - occurring, (From this time on there would be no land bridge to cross over into or out of Ireland.)

    The Natufian Culture, who where late hunters, appeared at this time in Human history, and they began to harvest and process the seeds that were to be the original ancestors of both Barley and Wheat, and they also began to live within groups in a village area that was composed of up to 50 round huts and they also had large cemeteries in which they buried their dead with ceremony.

10000 BC - 8000 BC the climate was to change dramatically after the 4th Glaciation Period as the Ice Sheets continued to melt and the Ocean began to rise towards its present level. For the next 5000 years Humans (new age man) was to suddenly become more dominant, developing new techniques for hunting and gathering the necessities of life. This simple change was to mean that within 3000 years the first Human civilizations would also begin to evolve.

9,800 BC The Allerod Interstadial, (A new short Warmer Period) occurred that was to last for 800 years and as the Ice melted again, the Sea began to rise, and plants began to reappear at the end of the Quaternary Ice Age, which opened up new territories for the new advancing modern Humans from the south to the north across the Trans - Alpine Europe.

9,000 BC The Ice fields were by now receding rapidly in Ireland, while the Juniper was spreading further, and the birch trees re - appeared, as forestation began once more with elm and pine, along with a more diverse group of plants, as other varieties now appeared. Animals that had also previously crossed over the land bridges, the red deer, the wild boar, the red squirrels, the pine - martens, the wolves, the foxes, the stoats, and the eagles, along with other birds of prey, soon followed.

    Primitive hunters and fishers were by now penetrating the Northern Zone from the Pennines eastwards to Denmark and the Baltic region. As the climate continued to improve to suite further Human expansion, the natural zone of Temperate Europe encouraged groups of small food seeking communities, who now ranged far and wide over the territory. (They were all descended from Upper Palaeolithic stock, with infusions of new genetic blood from the Eurasiatic Steppes occurring, or from Spain and the north - west of Africa who were all to form the future genetic pool of the Mesolithic people.

    The warmer Allerod Interstadial period came to an end with rapid cooling and a short Upper Dryas (Cold Phase) was to occur for another 700 years as the Ice Caps began to expand once again in Canada and Northern Eurasia, (At this time a Neolithic Period began in Egypt, and in India there were Mesolithic hunters already building round huts on to stone foundations).

8,500 BC - 7,500 BC The Old Stone Age / Palaeolithic Period was coming to an end.         

8,500 BC - 3,500 BC The Middle Stone Age / Mesolithic Period was occurring.


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