RAINBOW FARMS AUSTRALIA                                            


 3 Groups - (1) Macro / Larger Quantities required. Calcium, Cobalt, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Magnesium, Manganeze, Molybdenum, Potassium, Phosphorus, Selenium, Silica, Sodium, Sulphur, Zinc.                                          

(2) Micro / Small Quantity required                                           

(3)Trace / Minute quantity required and found in minute amounts, but most are in the Glandular System. Main Source: Seaweed Meal. Others: Arsenic, Aluminium, Boron, Mercury, Nickel, Silver, Tin.



N.B: An excess of any Mineral locks up one or more of the others.         Horses: Dry, Rough and Weak coloured Coats, eating Dirt, Recurring Disease, and Tail and Wood Chewing.


                                                                                                                                                                            Commercial Feeds


Deficient in Nutrients - Too much Iron means that the Vitamin E is destroyed - Too much Salt means the Potassium is destroyed. High Phosphorus locks up Calcium and Magnesium.

Chemical Degradation of the Soils due to the widespread use of Water Soluble Fertilizers such as Superphosphate, Chemical Pesticides and Herbicides has depleted many Minerals from the  Food Chain creating the need for Mineral Supplements. Anti - Biotics,  Hormones, Preservatives, Salt, Stabilizers, Sugar, Synthetically manufactured Minerals and Vitamins in Processed Feeds also Lack Nutritional  value.

*Minerals in their natural form in Raw Food are easily Metabolized by the Body, as in Nature they are in balance with the other Acids, Enzymes, Minerals and Vitamins.

 While natural Excesses are easily excreted their Synthetic counterparts hold on in the Body Tissues causing Health Conditions.


                                                                                                                                                              Minerals  - A - L

ALUMINIUM: is a Trace Mineral. Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


BORON: is a Trace Mineral. Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne. Best Natural Source - Seaweed then Garlic & Apple Cider Vinegar. Deficient in Australian Soils due to unbalanced Soils caused by Artificial Fertilizers. Small amounts required for Calcium & Magnesium to be correctly metabolized or Arthritic Conditions will develop. Symptoms: Creaking Joints.


BROMINE: is a Trace Mineral. Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


CALCIUM: 800mg. The Body is composed of more Calcium then any other Mineral, and it is crucial to the strengthening of Bones and Teeth with a Concentration of 99% while the other 1% in the Blood is essential for Blood Clotting and in the Nerves and Muscles including the Heart for Nerve Impulse Transmission and Muscular function and is also crucial to transport other Nutrients into the individual Cells. Regular short Sun baths of no more then 15 minutes at a time and not during the middle of the day are essential for Calcium to be absorbed by the Body.To assimilate Calcium, Boron and Vitamins A and D are necessary, with Vitamin D acting in conjunction with the Parathyroid Hormone to regulate the amount in the Blood. 20% of the Body's Calcium is dissolved and eliminated every year.

 Calcium corrects Allergic reactions, metabolizes Iron, maintains strong Bones, Teeth and Blood Coagulation, regulates the Heart, alleviates Insomnia, aids the Nervous System and Muscles with 20% to 30% of ingested Calcium absorbed being filtered through the Blood and excreted through the Urine with the same amount through the Faeces and some in Sweat.

Calcium is necessary for Bone Growth, Blood Coagulation, Digestion, Heart Muscle, Metabolic rate, processing the Acid - Alkaline balance, Enzyme activity and the Muscular and Nervous Systems.

Calcium: acts in conjunction with Magnesium and must be kept in balance.

N.B: Excess Calcium without Magnesium damages both Plant and Animal Systems by lowering their resistance to Viral attacks.

N.B: Do not overdo Calcium as this can deplete Cobalt, Copper and Manganeze, and also create Kidney Stones.

The most economical way to supplement natural Calcium is with High Grade Dolomite, which includes natural Magnesium.

Calcium: is found in Almonds, Avocado, Broccoli, Cheddar Cheese, Chick Peas, Clover, Eggs, Figs - dried, Fish, Fried Beans, Green Feed, Lucerne, Milk non - fat dry, Milk Whole,  Meat - lean, Molasses - Blackstrap, Oranges, Organic Feeds, Oysters, Parsley, Peanuts, Nuts, Raisins, Salmon with bone, Sardines, Seaweed, Sesame Seeds - Shelled out as it is too hard to get Calcium otherwise, Spinach, Soybean Meals, Soy Milk, Sunflower Seeds, Tahini - unhulled, Vegetables - fresh green, Walnuts, Wheat, Wheat Grass and Yoghurt.

N.B: Honey preserves Calcium Metabolism.

Deficient Soils: produce deficient Feed and this along with Artificial Fertilizers affects the Calcium levels that creates Arthritis, Uneven Bone growth / Rickets, Open Knees, Poor Teeth, a general lack of Well Being and a susceptibility to Cold, Lactation Conditions / Milk Fever, Mastitis and low Milk production.

N.B: Milk Powder is not a good way to provide Calcium as it is difficult to Digest as it has Insoluble by-products and produces Arthritic Conditions.

N.B: If Calcium Carbonate and Dicalcium Phosphate are fed they should only be included for one or two weeks - Ground Limestone is safer.

Calcium and Magnesium: If there is an excess of Calcium in the Soil then Magnesium will be required to create a balance. Magnesium acts with Calcium for the formation of a resistant enamel for healthy Teeth. Calcium and Magnesium occur together in Artesian Bores.

Deficiency Signs: Acne, Aching Limbs, Arms and Legs - Tingling, Arthritis, Bone Malformation, Pidgeon Breast, Cold Sores, Eczema, Delayed healing of Fractures, Inflammation of the weak Bones, Knock Knees, Itchiness, Head - Excessive Sweating, Legs - Bowed, Muscle Cramps or Weakness, Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia - Bone Pain, Osteoporosis (Poor and Fragile Bones, excessive Perspiration, Rickets - (Malformed Bones), Lack of Sleep, extreme deficiency causes Poor Teeth, and Vascular Conditions.

N.B:African Grasses have high Oxalate levels, which also deplete Calcium and Magnesium.

N.B:Town water containing Sodium Fluoride renders Magnesium and Calcium inert and unobtainable in the Gut.

N.B:Too much Calcium causes a depletion of Magnesium and vice versa. Do not feed Calcium Carbonate (Ground Limestone) in the feed for Horses as this will cause Magnesium Loss.

    Dolomite, which see under separate cover, from Mudgee in N.S.W. is Calcium combined with Magnesium in the correct ratio Ca Co 63% - Mg Co 35% as 24% Carbonate and 10% Carbonate respectively. This is essential for Plant foods as it reduces Acidity in Clay more then Sandy soils and neutralizes the Acid effect of pre - using heavy applications of Chemical fertilizers. It increases the pH of Acid soil releasing the nutrients including Calcium, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sulphur. It prevents Aluminum, Iron and Manganese Toxicity and improves soil structure, hastening the decomposition of Raw Organic matter as it has 98% neutralizing value.

Calcium and Phosphorus: also work together and are not effective without each other as they balance each other also and must be present before either can react. The highest form of both is in Chamomile Flowers.


CHROMIUM: A Trace Mineral that assists to prevent Diabetes, High Blood Pressure and aids Growth.

Chromium is found in Alfalfa / Lucerne, Brewer's Yeast, Chicken, Clams, Corn Oil, Meat, Shellfish. 

Deficiency Signs: Arteriosclerosis  (Hardening of the Arteries), Diabetes - Disorder of the Pancreas or the Hypothalamus Glands.


CHLORIDE: Chlorinated water destroys Intestinal Bacteria,

Chloride: Aids Digestion and promotes Healthy Hair and Teeth.         Chloride is found in Olives, Salt, Seaweed, Yoghurt.

Deficiency Signs: Poor Digestion, Poor Hair and Teeth.


COBALT: Builds healthy Bones and Red Blood Cells and assists to prevent Anaemia. Cobalt is synthesized in the Gut into Vitamin B12 except when under extreme Stress, Illness or when given Anti - Biotics.

Cobalt is found in Clams, Kidneys, Liver, Meat, Milk. Oysters, Rosehips, Seaweed

Deficiency: Is rare, but if so, a Horse will be below par in health with a depleted Appetite and a susceptibility to Cold and unwilling to move. There is a subnormal Temperature and also a lack of Bone Growth in Young Foals. If both Cobalt and Copper - (both are required for healthy Red Blood Cells) are missing the Anaemia will be worse.

Causes: Overuse of Artificial Fertilizers, excess Molybdenum from over top dressing or a lack of Cobalt in the Soil.

Treatment: Inject Vitamin B12 to re - activate, as it is Water Soluble with the Body excreting any excess.  Dosage: Large Horse - 10 to 20 cc. Foal - 10 cc, which encourages the Horse to eat after Illness and Stress especially after Anti - Biotics are given, which also causes depleted Appetites.                                                                        

N.B: Cobalt Sulphate is extremely Toxic and should not be given in excess of a 1 / 4 of a teaspoon per Adult Horse per week. (Better to add Seaweed Meal to the Diet, as it is safer containing Cobalt in Organic form. N.B: If the Soil is Cobalt deficient the p.H. must be improved to reach 6.0 + plus before it is top - dressed with Cobalt. (Usually by then it is in balance.)


COLLOIDIDAL SILVER: is an Anti - Biotic.


COPPER: A Trace Mineral involved in all of the Body Tissues via the Blood as it creates optimum Health ensuring a Healthy Immune System, Disease Resistance especially against Internal Parasites, Queensland Itch and Fungals such as Greasy Heel / Mud Fever, Ringworm and Seedy Toe. 50% of Copper in the Body is in the Skeleton and Muscles although they have lower concentrations individually due to their Body mass, with the higher concentrations in the Liver (10%) and other similar amounts in the Brain, Heart and Kidneys. As we age the amount of Copper in the Liver decreases and the amount of Copper in the Brain increases. Babies have Liver Copper Concentrations ten times that of Adults as Milk is not a rich source of Copper. 30% of ingested Copper is utilized by the Body with absorption occurring in the Stomach and Upper Intestine and into the Bloodsteam within 15 minutes with any surplus Copper excreted in the Faeces and Bile with little removed in the Urine.

N.B: Australian Soils are Deficient in Copper, and it is also caused by Chemical farming methods and a lack of the Soil's ability to take it up due to it being inhibited by Superphosphate.

Copper acts as a catalyst to create Haemoglobin as it reaches the Bloodstream within 15 minutes of Digestion, and is essential for the utilization of Vitamin C, Aids in Pigmentation a factor of Hair and Skin and Aids in effective Iron absorption and is present in in many Enzymes that break down or build up Body Tissue. Copper is also involved in converting the Amino Acid, Tyrosine into a dark pigment to colour the Hair and Skin and in Protein Metabolism and healing in general.

Copper is also required to synthesize Phospholipids that are essential in creating the protective Myelin Sheath sourrounding the Nerve Fibres.

Copper is found in most Beans - dried, Liver - Beef - Calf - Duck - Lamb, Brazil Nuts, Crab, Dandelion, Garlic, Lobster, Milk - Whole dry, Mushrooms, Oysters, Parsley, Prawns, Peas, Prunes, Red Clover, Rosehip Granules – Rosa Canina, which is very high in Copper and to give extra Copper safely, Seaweed / Seaweed Meal contains Copper and can be utilized to gain a Trace Mineral, Sunflower Seeds, Trout, Walnuts, Wheat - Bran - Whole. 

Copper and Silica are important Minerals for the Feet.

Deficiency Signs: Abscesses, Anaemia, Brittle Bones - Brittle, Diarrhoea - Prolonged, a lack of Colour in the Hair (Depigmentation), Fertility Conditions, Hair - Brittle, Oedema - excessive fluid in the Tissues, (abnormal swelling), Premature Babies, Scouring, Skin - Fungal Conditions - Saggy around the Eyes, Skin Sores, Respiration - Impaired, Taste - Loss of, Thrush, Seedy Toe and Heavy Worm Infestations in Horses, Fence and Tail chewing also bark or other wood - are looking for Copper, which the deep - rooted trees always contain even if the Pastures are deficient in it, Water Retention, Weakness, 

Copper Toxicity: Abdominal Pain, Diarrhoea, Muscle Pains, Nausea, Vomiting.

Horses: A black - dark Horse requires 6 times more Copper then a Light coloured Horse with Black Horses suffering from these problems more frequently.

Copper absorbs Iron and although Australia is high in Iron Anaemia is the most common condition in all livestock and it is better to try and rectify the Anaemia by treating the basic cause, which is either Red Worms or a lack of Copper. (Iron Tonics destroy Vitamin E with Ironcyclin the safest to use.)

N.B: Toxicity: Copper is highly Toxic and High Grade Dolomite is the natural Antidote and Horses should receive 1 x Dessertspoon full of Dolomite daily in its feed to correct this. An excess of Copper also suppresses Zinc.

N.B:Copper is fed as Copper Sulphate / Bluestone as Copper Carbonate should only be used for top - dressing the paddock, as it is twice as strong as Copper Sulphate.

Oral Copper Poisoning: Add Dolomite to the feed as an Antidote with 2 x Tablespoons given at a time in a Drench.

Treatment: For persistent Fence Chewing by Horses add 1 x teaspoon of Copper Sulphate in the daily ration for a day or two until the Horse stops this activity and then reduce it to a 1/4 of a teaspoon daily or for a long term preventative treatment 2 x Tablespoons of Rosehip Granules, twice daily for a 450 kg Horse as well as Seaweed Meal, which is the best to use. Calcium and Silica are also important Minerals for the Feet.


DOLOMITE: Use only High Grade at the rate of 1 x Tablespoon twice a day for a 450 kg Horse as it supplies Calcium, Magnesium and a little Silica.

EPSOM SALTS / See under Magnesium Sulphate.

FLUORINE: is a Tissue strengthener, Synthetic Fluorine is a Toxic Poison, natural Fluorine is beneficial and strengthens the Bones and Teeth. Fluorine is found in Beets, Cabbage, Egg Whites, Garlic, Gelatin, Lettuce, Radishes, Seafood and Whole Wheat.

Deficiency Signs: Tooth Decay.


FULLER'S EARTH: is a Clay - like substance, which is rich in Minerals and toning Salts used in natural Cosmetics due to its binding properties. It has an Astringency and Stimulating effect on the Skin especially in Face Masks and cleansing preparations for troubled Skin. Can be purchased as a fine grey powder at pharmacies.


IODINE / Endocrine: is the supreme Gland builder and Conditioner, safeguards the Brain from Toxins, gives Energy, reduces excess Fatty Tissue, removes Toxic Elements and promotes Growth, strong Hair, Nails, Skin and Teeth and improves Mental capacity. Necessary for the Thyroid Gland to control the health of all the other Glands in the Body / the Endocrine System. Iodine is found in Irish Moss, Vegetables grown in rich soil, Seaweed, Onions and Seafood. 

N.B: More Iodine is required in Cold Weather as excretion is higher.  Australian Soils are deficient in Iodine even the coastal areas, but although it is not actually a Mineral, it is extremely important to good health and will also cause Dandruff, lack of Energy, Goitre, Hair Loss, Hypothyroidism and Excessive Weight Gain.

N.B: If there is a deficiency no matter what Minerals or Vitamins are given they will not be assimilated properly. This is the basic cause of all physical problems in the Body.

Horses: It will also cause Weaker Fillies as they need more Iodine then Colts, and is also often missing due to the overfeeding of Legumes such as Lucerne, Clovers, Beans, Peas, Soybeans, Lupins, etc - (Goitrogenic Feeds), which will cause the Goitre to swell, as in cases of Acute Iodine Deficiency. Feeds high in Nitrates such as Capeweed, when present in large amounts such as during a Drought can inhibit Iodine and cause Thyroid Dysfunction. Horses on Capeweed paddocks need Iodine Supplement as well as Dolomite (Magnesium) Seaweed Meal will provide the Iodine. African Grasses also have a long term Goitrogenic effect.

Treatment: Seaweed Meal is preferable to Inorganic Iodine in the form of Potassium Iodide or Lugol’s Solution as both of these are Toxic in excess as well as expensive.

Seaweed Meal: must be kept Dry and the Horses in the paddocks will help themselves to their requirements Ad Lib. Keep in a strong container attached to the shed / stable wall or give 1 x Tablespoon a day per Horse in the feed. N.B: There is more Iodine in Seaweed Meal then in Liquid Kelp.

Liquid Seaweed: is also available such as Natrakelp / Iodine 125 ppm / 10 ml / 2.5 mg - daily dose for 450gr Horse or Maxi Crop Multi and this can be given at 5ml a week. Toxicity Level: 40 - 50 mg daily. (20 gm Seaweed Meal daily only) 0.1mg per kg of feed consumed on a dry basis for maintenance, Growing, Working and Pregnant and Lactating mares - Tolerance 5 mg per kg.

Ponies and Cross – Breeds: have ferocious Appetites and care must be taken as a Goitre may be a symptom of both imbalances in the Thyroid System such as Hyper Thyroidism - Over Active and Hypothyroisism - Under Active. This occurs underneath the base of the Jaws and is a moveable, hard round Lump. Do not confuse with Lymphatic Swellings, which follow the base of the Jaw where the Neck joins and goes upwards to the base of the Ear.

Treatment: Under Active Thyroid / Seaweed.                                       Over Active Thyroid use the herb, Blue Flag instead (Some Horses can react to Seaweed.)


IRON: The Blood Mineral that is in every Cell combines with Protein and Copper to produce Haemoglobin to transport Oxygen from the Lungs to the Tissues increasing resistance to Disease and Stress. Forms Myoglobin in the Muscle Tissue to transport Oxygen to the Muscle Cells to produce a Chemical reaction resulting in Muscle contraction. Iron is also present in the Enzymes that promote Protein Metabolism that work with other Nutrients to improve Respiratory action. Gastric Acidity regulates the solubility and therefore the availibility of Iron in food.

N.B: Calcium and Copper must be present for Iron to function properly.

N.B: Only take Iron supplements under supervision of a Nutritionist or Doctor. N.B: Australia is basically of Volcanic origins and Iron deficiency is unknown.

Iron is neither used up or destroyed but is conserved to be utilized repeatedly, as only very small amounts are excreted via the Faeces and the Urine and during exfoliation of the Skin, Menstruation and Sweating. Abscorbic Acid increases absorption by reducing Ferric Iron to Ferrous Iron with the Iron in animal Protein more easily absorbed then the Iron in Vegetables.

Iron, Calcium and Phosphorus needs to be in balance, as excess Phosphorus inhibits Iron absorption but Calcium will combine with Phosphates and free the Iron while a lack of Hydrochloric Acid, Alkalis, a high intake of Celluioss, Coffee and Tea, or the presence of insoluble Iron complexes  (Phytates, Oxalates and Phosphates) with increased Intestinal mobility will all interefere withe absorption of Iron.

N.B: Vitamin C enhances the absorption of Iron that occurs in the upper part of the Small Intestine within 4 hours after ingestion, while 90% remains unabsorbed with only 2 - 4% of Iron found in food used by the Body after being stored in the Blood, Bone Marrow, Liver and Spleen   

 Iron is required to transport Oxygen in the Blood / Red Blood Cells as Haemoglobin triggered by a trace of Copper or it remains useless and also requires Calcium for absorption. Copper supplements will raise the Iron levels very quickly and does not totally suppress Vitamin E like Iron Tonics if used for no longer then a week or so. Iron is actually so high that it suppresses other Minerals, especially Potassium. High Iron is also sometimes needed to balance Calcium and Magnesium / Lime Minerals. Iron is found in Almonds, Apricots - dried, Asparagus, Barley, Beans, Beef - ground lean - Kidney, Beets, Cashews, Clams, Dandelion, Egg Yolks, Fish, Fruit - dried, Grains Whole, Heart, Liver - Chicken - Duck - Lamb - Pork - Turkey, Legumes, Meat - lean, Molasses, Nuts, Oatmeal, Oats, Oysters, Parsley, Peach - dried, Raisins, Red Meat, Rice Bran - Brown - Wild,  Seaweed, Soybeans, Sunflower Seeds, Vegetables - dark green leafy, Wheat Bran.

  Iron absorption is inhibited by Coffee and Tea, and Iron intake is essential to the Body's energy producing functions, necessary to Metabolize the B Vitamins, required for production of Haemoglobin (Red Blood Corpuscles), Myoglobin (Red Pigment in Muscles) and certain Enzymes. 65% of the Iron intake into the Body is found in Haemoglobin the principal component of Red Blood Cells that acts as a carrier of Oxygen from the Lungs to the Tissues, which die if deprived of Oxygen. Iron affects the production of T - Cells the key participants in the Immune System. Iron related immunity is conferred through Human Breast Milk also to the Baby. Processed foods contain Iron that is not easily absorbed. If Intestinal absorption is impaired then taking Digestive Enzymes may be required.

Deficiency Signs: Aging Disorders, Alcholism, Anaemia (Hypochronic) that is caused by a lack of Copper balance, Blood Conditions, Breathing - Difficult, Bruises, Cancer, Candida, Celiac Disease, Colitis, Constipation, Diabetes, Diarrhoea, Dizziness, continual Exhaustion / Fatigue, Gastritis, Gout, Gum - Disorders,  Hair Loss, Haemorrhages, Herpes Simplex, Inflammations, Lethargy, Leukemia, Menstruation, Mood swings, Nails - Brittle, Nephrititis, Scurvy, Skin -Pale, Tooth Disorders, Tuberculosis, Ulcers, Ulcers - Peptic, Worms.

Toxicity to Iron: Can be due to a Genetic error of Metabolism, Blood Transfusions, too much intake of Iron, large amounts of Red Wine containing Iron, and overusing IronTonics. Excessive deposits of Iron may also occur due to Cirrhosis of the Liver, Diabetes, Pancreas Insufficiency, Disease, Haemolytic or Aplastic Anemia, Hepatitis, Vegetarian Diets, Accumulated Iron can also occur in older men, and can also result in a damaged Heart, Liver and Pancreas, and Siderosis. Those suffering from Artharitis also may suffer from an insufficient Metabolism of Iron resulting in deposits in the Joints due to the Digestive Tracts inability to eliminate  the excess Iron, which turns the Skin a geyish colour and can involve a shortness of Breath, Dizziness, Fatigue, Headaches and Weight Loss.

Treatment: Is to bring the Calcium - Magnesium balance up to the correct level.


LITHIUM : Is a Trace Element in small amounts and its deficiency causes Mental Illness in humans and this is also covered by the addition of Seaweed Meal.


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