RAINBOW FARMS AUSTRALIA                                            

                                                                                                                        MINERALS - 2 (Manganeze - Zinc)

MANGANEZE: A Trace Mineral absorbed into the Small Intestine that is required for activating numerous Enzymes to create Healthy Metabolism, Bones, Cartilage, Nervous System and pH balance. Aids Digestion, Improves Reflexes and Memory, Reduces Irritability, Eliminates Fatigue with the Body containing 10 - 20 milligrams  mostly in the Bones, Kidneys, Pancreas and the Pituitary Glands. Aids in the utilization of Choline and for the Enzymes that utilize Abscorbic Acid, Biotin and Thiamine and is a Catalyst for synthesising Fatty Acids and Cholesterol. 4 milligrams are excreted every day through the Faeces as Choline from within the Bile. Calciuim and Phosphates will also effect the rate of absorption in the Body.

Manganeze: Co - ordinates the action between the Brain Nerves and Muscles throughout the Body, Reproduction and Mammary Gland function.

Manganeze is found in Almonds, Apple Cider Vinegar, Beets, Blackberries, Blueberries, Brazil Nuts, Chestnuts - fresh, Coconuts - shredded, Egg Yolk, Figs - dried, Grains - Whole, well grown Green Feed, Hazel Nuts, Liver - Beef, Nuts, Oysters, Peanuts, Peas, Pineapple, Raspberries, Strawberries, Vegetables - green leafy, Walnuts.

Deficiency Signs: Asthma, Bone Growth - Abnormal - Deformed, Digestion - Poor - Disturbed, Equilibrium - Poor, Fatigue, Growth - Retarded, Impotence - Men, Myasthenia Gravis, Sterility - Men - Women, 


MAGNESIUM: 320mg - the Nerve Mineral making up .05%of the Body's Weight where it is absorbed in the Small Intestine with 70% in the Bones and 30% in the Soft Tissues and Body Fluids inside the Cells where it activates the Enzymes involved in many essential Metabolic processes such as the Carbohydrates and Amino Acids. The rate of Absorption is subject to Parathyroid Hormones, water absorption and the amounts of Calcium Phosphate and Lactose (Mllk Sugar) in the Body. Acts as a Catalyst for many of the Enzyme functions especially Energy and assists to utilize Vitamin B and E, Calcium, Fats and other Minerals.

Magnesium: assists to regulate the Acid - Alkaline balance in the Body and the production of Lecithin while promoting absorption and the Metabolism of the other Minerals and Vitamins, with Vitamin D especially required to utilize Magnesium. The Adrenal Gland produces Aldo - Sterone, a Hormone that regulates the the secretion of Magnesium through the KIdneys. It is also a natural Tranquilizer and prevents a build up of Cholesterol.

N.B: Do not overdo Calcium and Magnesium as this depletes Cobalt, Copper and Manganeze.

Magnesium  converts Blood Sugar into Energy, aids Calcium and Vitamin C Metabolism as well as other Electrolytes, Phosphorus, Potassium and Sodium present in fluid in which the Muscles are bathed, creating effective Nerve and Muscle function.

Magnesium relaxes and smoothes Muscles and dilates the Arteries, while Calcium and Sodium tend to constrict Arteries. Magnesium levels decline rapidly under Stress, leaving Calcium and Sodium the dominant Minerals. The Smooth Muscles may begin to tremble or go into Spasm and indications are that a Magnesium deficiency creates Vasoconstriction of Arteries in the Heart region rather than throughout the Body. Heart Attack victims usually have 10 - 35% Magnesium levels below normal.

 Magnesium also stabilizes Platelet clumping as a deficiency of Magnesium increases the ability of Platelets to clump and block a Coronary Artery, precipitating a Heart Attack. Magnesium deficiency also contributes to Arterial Fibrillation (Irregular Heartbeat) and to Migraine Headaches. Requires Phosphorus to be really effective.

Magnesium is found in Almonds, Apples, Bone Meal, Butter, Cashews, Cheese - Parmesan - Swiss, Corn Nuts, Dates (high) Dandelion, Figs (high) - dry, Garlic, Grapefruit, Honey, Lemons, Margarine, Milk - not fat dry -whole dry, Nuts, Peanuts, Parsley, Prickly Pear, Rice - Brown, Seafood, Seaweed, Seeds, Sesame Seeds, Soybeans, Spinach, Vegetables - dark green, Wheat Bran - Germ - Whole.

Magnesium Is the biggest problem in modern farming practice as it is more readily Inhibited then Calcium by Artificial Fertilizers, as most areas are deficient in it. 50% - 70% is required for Bone Growth and the rest for Neuro - Muscular transmission, Muscular health, and regulates the Nerve Fibers that control the Central Nervous System and assists to regulate Glandular function. The Enzyme System only works properly when there is an adequate supply of Magnesium present in it.

Magnesium and Calcium are rendered inert and unobtainable in the Gut from Sodium Fluoride found in Town Water and is especially deficient when the Muscular Spasm / Cramp or Muscle Soreness from overuse occurs, or when Muscles contract involuntarily under Stress.

N.B: Artesian Bores are a source of Calcium and Magnesium.  

Deficiency Signs: (An ongoing deficiency will create a loss of Calcium and Potassium from the Body.)Aids, Artherosclerosis, Arthritis, Bone Growth - Uneven, Circulation - Poor, Complexion Conditions, Confusion, Depression, Epileptic Seizures, Eyelids - Twitchy, Founder in Horses, Gall Stones, Headache, Heart Attack - Disease, Insomnia, Kidney - Damage - Stones, Mastitis, Menstrual Cramping, Muscle Cramps - Twitching, Nervousness - Irritability, Nervous Squinting, Protein Metabolism - Impairment, Spasms, Stress, Stringhalt in Horses, Teeth - Poor, Tetanies, Tics, Warts, Wrinkles - Premature.

Toxicity: May be Toxic for those who have Kidney Malfunctions if they overdose.

Horses: Magnesium is also removed from the feed chain by any produce digested that is high in Nitrates such as Capeweed, etc, which will bring on Stringhalt followed by Iron deficiency and death.

Treatment: Regular Dolomite or Magnesite in the Horse's feed corrects abnormal Growth patterns or changes.


MAGNESIUM OXIDE: May assist towards a more settled Temperament.


 MAGNESIUM SULPHATE / EPSOM SALTS : is a common Mineral form MgSO47H20, which is used in medicine as a Laxative. Suitable to use on Burns with 50% water, and as Lozenges (Toxins in Saliva.) Also used as a Sponge to relax.


MOLYBDENUM: A Trace Mineral. Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne and Garlic. A Trace is required for maximum Fertility. Soils with a pH below 5.0 are especially deficient as it is required to fully utilize Copper.

Deficiency causes Infertility and may also cause Anaemia due to Copper being affected. N.B: Any excess destroys Copper and Cobalt and top - dressing Soils with Molybdenum is no longer recommended. N.B: It is better to raise the Organic Matter in the Soil by increasing the Humus by spreading Animal Manures, creating Compost and Slashing the Paddocks to keep them healthy.


NICKEL: A Trace Mineral found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


PHOSPHORUS: the Mood Mineral is the second most abundant Mineral in the Body and is present in every Cell, and around 70% is absorbed from the Intestine into the Bloodstream with over 80% of this amount stored in the Bones and Teeth with Calcium (Antacids can deplete this through the Urine) Phosphorus acts as a Nervous System Tonic, Aids in Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Fats and Starches, Bone, Hair and Tooth structure, Heart regularity, transfer of Nerve Impulses and Kidney function. Required to balance Calcium and essential for Healthy Growth but must always be kept in balance with Calcium and Magnesium with 2 1/2 parts of Calcium to 1 part Phosphorus although Phosphorus is in a higher ration in the Soft Tissues. Essential for the Nervous System, processing Fats and Carbohydrates, for Enzyme stimulation and healthy Skin, Hair and Horses Hooves. Absorption of Phosphorus also requires Vitamin D and Calcium and can be interrfered with by excessive amounts of Aluminium, Iron and Magnesium that form Insoluble Phosphates instead. White Sugar can also interfere with the Calcium - Phosphorus balance. High Fat diets or Digestive Conditions that prevent absorption of Fat increases the absorption of Phosphorus in the Intestine and thereby decreases the amount of Calcium absorbed upsetting the balance also.

Organic Matter is essential in the soils as heavily cropped Soils will be subject to Leaching and become low in Phosphorus and other Minerals.

Phosphorus is found in Almonds, Beans, Brazil Nuts, Cheese - Cheddar - Gouda -Parmesan - Swiss, Eggs, Fish, Garlic, Grains Whole, Lentils, Meats - Glandular. Milk - non fat dry, Milk Whole dry, Millet, Mung Beans, Oats, Nuts, Peanuts, Poultry,  Pumpkin Seeds, Rice - Brown - Bran, Sardines, Seaweed, Seeds, Sesame Seeds, Soybeans, Squash Seeds, Sunflower Seeds - black, Wheat - Bran - Germ.

Phosphorus Deficiency can result in Poor Mineralization of the Bones, Retarded Growth, Rickets, Deficient Brain and Nerve function, reduced Sexual Drive and general Weakness.  

Deficiency Signs: Anxiety, Appetite - Loss, Nervous Eczema, Fatigue, Nervous Conditions, Osteoporosis, Pyorrhea - Disease of the Bones around the Teeth, Rickets, Sensitivity, Skin -=  Inflamed Itchy for no apparent reason, Strength Loss, Weight Loss.

N.B: Phosphorus in excess will lead to Fragile Bones and Lameness, which is often irreversible. Extreme use of Super Phosphate on Calcium and Manganeze balanced pastures has led to too much Phosphorus and Disease due to a lack of other Minerals. Phosphorus levels in prepared Horse Feeds are now too high, but feeding Dolomite will assist to remedy this Imbalance. Properly farmed Soils is the best way to go as they should have no Phosphorus problems.

.B:Use ordinary Rock Phosphate based on a Soil Analysis as it is a slow release fertilizer.


POTASSIUM: An Alkalising Agent for the correct Alkaline Balance in the Blood and Tissues to prevent over Acidity in the Body with about 8% rapidly absorbed from the digested food through the Small Intestine and the surplus excreted through Urination and Persperation with a little in the Faeces. It is the essential Brain Mineral that constitutes 5% of the Mineral content in the Body found mainly in the Intrcellution Fluid while a small amount is in the Extracellular Fluid, and it is mainly destroyed in the Body by Alcohol, Caffeine, Sugar, Diuretics and overcooking. Assists the Kidneys to dextoxify the Blood while maintaining the required Serum Levels to filter, secrete and excrete Potassium, and Aldosterone the Adrenal Hormone also stimulates Potassium excretion. Prevents Female Disorders by stimulating the Endocrine Hormones for the proper function of the Nervous System.

Potassium: Aids in Allergy treatment, Aids in sending Oxygen to the Brain, Assists in Reducing Blood Pressure, Assists to dispose of Body Wastes and AIds in Recuperation and is necessary for Growth to stimulate Nerve Impulses for Muscle contaction and a normal Heart Beat while maintaining Alkalinity of the Body Fluids, the regulation of Muscle function and Tone, and is essential for all Life both Plant and Animal.

Potassium: is being lost World wide in the Soils due to the use of Chemical Fertilizers, which raise the Sodium level in the Soils, while Organic farming replaces Potassium.

Potassium works in the Body with Sodium to assist Body Fluid balance eliminating Wastes through the Kidneys, regulating the Fluid distribution on either  side of the Cell Walls, but Potassium can be destroyed by an excess of Salt.

Potassium is important to  processing Nitrogen Metabolism compounds.

Potassium is found in Almonds, Apple Cider Vinegar, Bananas, Barley, Brazil Nuts, Citrus Fruits, Dandelion, Dates, Figs, Garlic, Grains Whole, Lettuce, Mint Leaves, Milk - not fat dry - Whole dry, Molasses - Blackstrap, Parsley, Peaches - dried, Peanuts, Potatoes, Prunes, Raisins, Rice Bran, Sardines, Seafood, Seaweed, Spinach, Sunflower Seeds, Tomatoes, Vegetables - green leafy, Watercress, Wheat - Bran - Germ.

Deficiency Excessive Urinary losses can be induced by a High Salt Intake or an inadequate intake of Fruit and Vegetables and can also cause an excessive accumulatuion of Sodium in the Tissues producing Sodium Poisoning, Edemia, High Blood Pressure and Heart Failure, and may damage the Heart Muscle creating a Heart Attack. Potassium deficiency and Vitamin C deficiency at Conception interferes with normal Genetic inheritance and paddocks should be as healthy as possible. Potassium deficiency also interferes with the capacity to make the most of the Feed on hand and is associated with Navicular Disease (A constriction of the Blood Vessels).

N.B: Horses: Dystokia / Difficult Foaling is also caused by a lack of Potassium.

Deficiency Signs: Acne, Constipation (especially in those Aged and housebound) Edema, Fatigue - Extreme, Hair - Sudden Loss, Hypo - Glycaemia (Low Blood Sugar), Hysteria, Irritability, Insomnia, Muscular Weakness, Nervous - Disorders - Eczema, Nervousness, Noise, Skin - Dry - Greasy, Sensitivity, Yawning.

Treatment: Horses: Every Brood Mare should have 1 x Tablespoon of Apple Cider Vinegar, a very good source of Potassium, daily for the last 2 Months of their Pregnancy to ensure that the Foals are born as easily as possible.          

N.B: High Sodium levels in many Soils and the Feeds that are grown on them are too high in Salt and many Feed Supplements also have Sodium, which only increases Potassium deficiency and its associated Conditions.


SELENIUM: is an Anti - Carcinogen and Immune Stimulant and an essential Trace Mineral found in minute amounts that works in conjunction with Vitamin E for Body Growth especially for Males who require more then Females. As an Anti - Oxidant it protects Cells throughout the Body from Damage caused by Free Radicals and Toxins that may diminish the constant Immune response that has to deal with them. It alleviates Hot Flashes, and slows down Aging as it may reduce the Auto - Immune Damage, Protects against certain Cancers, Prevents Dandruff and Strengthens the Immune System. It activates Coenzyme O, which stimulates the Immune System and it also enhances the effects of certain Vaccines such as the one used for Malaria. It also produces Healthy Muscles and improves certain Energy producing Cells including those of the Heart by ensuring they receive adequate Oxygen.The Kidneys and Liver contain up to 5 times as much Selenium as the Muscles and the other Tissues with the excess excreted in the Urine, but if it is found in the Faeces it is an indication of improper absorption as it binds with Toxic Metals. It preserves Liver function and maintains resistance to Disease and protects against Toxic Minerals and promotes the production of Prostaglandin, Healthy Eyes, Hair and Skin.

Selenium: is necessary to produce Prostaglandin substances that effect Blood Pressure as a deficiency can result in a deficiency of other Compounds necessary to keep the Arteries free of Platelet aggregration.

NB: Dangerous in excess as are most Trace Minerals. N.B:Excess Selenium can cause a Malformed Foetus or Poisoning. N.B: Sodium Selenite also unsafe to give as it is Highly Toxic.

N.B: Deficiencies are also increasing in the Soils due to the addition of Acid Chemicals or Artificial Fertilizers that suppress the Selenium.

Selenium: Is found in Bran, Brazil Nuts, Broccoli, Cheese - Swiss, Chops, Clams, Eggs, Garlic, Grains Whole, Liver - Beef, Lobster, Mushrooms, Onions, Oysters, Prawns, Rice - Brown, Scallops, Sesame Seeds, Steak Round, Seaweed is a better natural source then Garlic as Selenium is found naturally in Seaweed where 1 x Unit of Natural Selenium is as effective as 4 x Units of Artificial Selenium and much safer. Tomatoes, Tuna, Wheat - Bran - Germ - Whole,

Deficiency Signs: Premature Aging, a reduction in Lymphocytes and Phagocytes that consume foreign Pathogens as they enter the Body, Males may have depleted Sperm whose tails drop off, Retarded Growth suddenly with or without Muscle wasting, Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Accumulated Pigment in the Nerve Cells accomanied by Mental Retardation, Diminished Vision, Nerve Disorders and Death, White Muscle Disease in Lambs and other Animals, and may also be a cause for Tying Up in Horses.

Immediate Remedy: 3,000 - 4,000 Units of Vitamin E.                    Treatment: Horses:  include Dolomite and Seaweed in the feed.                                           Toxicity: can cause Dermatitis, Hair Loss, Lethargy, Nail Loss, Paralysis, Teeth Loss.


SILICA: is the most important Mineral for all Connective Tissue, Bones, Hair, Hooves, Nails and Skin as it is allows Calcium to strengthen them. Prevents Calcium deposits around the Joints and breaks up Uric acid Crystals around those affected to prevent and treat Arthritis.

Silica is found in Apples, Cucumber, Dandelion, Lettuce, Millet especially French White, Whole Oats, Strawberries, Sunflower Seeds.  

Deficiency Signs: Arthritic Nodule formation, Poor Muscle Tone, a change in the Hair, Nails and Skin texture. Calcium, Copper and Silica are important Minerals for the Feet with High Grade Dolomite containing Calcium and Magnesium and a little Silica.

SILICON: A Trace Mineral found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


SILVER: Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


SODIUM: The Fluid Mineral absorbed in the Small Intestine and Stomach then carried by the Blood to the Kidneys where it is filtered out and returned to the Blood in amounts required to maitain the Blood levels for the Body of which 50% is found mainly in the Extracellular Fluids  / Vascular Fluids within the Arteries, Blood Vessels,Capillaries, Veins and the Intestinal Fluids surrounding the Cells with the balance in the Bones essential to regulate the Body's water balance with the Adrenal Hormone Aldosterone assisting to regulate the Sodium Metabolism and the excess excreted in the Urine., Aids in preventing Heat Prostration or Sunstroke, and assists Nerves and Muscles to function properly. Balances Fluids and works with Potassium to assist Hydration / Body Fluids - good for Healthy Kidneys, to balance pH and prevent Arthritis. Excess Salt in the food interferes with absorption especially Protein foods, and Diarrhoea, excessive Sweating and Vomiting also depletes Sodium.

Sodium / Salt: in conjunction with Potassium equalizes the Acid - Alkali Factor in the Blood and assists to regulate the water balance within the Body regulating the Fluids on either side of the Cell Walls and is involved in Muscular Contraction and expansion and also in Nerve stimulation.

Sodium: assists to keep other Blood Minerals soluble to avoid deposits in the Bloodstream and produces Hydrochloric Acid in the Stomach.

Sodium combines wirh Chlorine to cleanse the Body and Blood improving both Blood and Lymph Health while removing Carbon Dioxide and aiding Digestion.

Sodium / Salt: is found in Artichokes, Bacon, Beef - dried - corned boneless, Beets, Brains, Carrots, Celery, Cheese - Blue Vein - Cemembert, Cheddar - Feta - Gouda - Parmesan - Roquefort, Coconut, Eggs, Figs, Ham - boneless, Herring, Kidney, Lobster, Pink Rock Salt as in its natural form it Alkalizers and is not retained, Salt, Prawns, Sardines, Seaweed, Shellfish.  

Deficiency Signs: Adrenal Exhaustion, Arthritis, Carbohydrate Digestion Impaired, Cystic Fibrosis, Dehydration as Sweating depletes Minerals not Salt, Dyspepsia, Fever, Gum / Teeth Disorders, Heartburn, Leg Cramps, Muscle Shrinkage, Neuralgia, Polio, Rheumatism, Vomiting, Weight  Loss

Sodium / Salt: levels in the Soils have been increased by Chemical Fertilizers and Irrigation practice.

Sodium / Salt: Excess in the food chain depresses Potassium and causes Oedema / Fluid Retention and Cancer.  Sodium Chloride / Common Salt produces an Acid state with the excess retained in the Fluids.

Remedy: Add Seaweed, to the food, not Salt, as it contains a small amount of natural Sodium as well as Trace Minerals.  

Toxicity: Dizziness, Fluid Retention, High Blood Pressure, Swellings - Face - Legs,


SULPHUR: Yellow Powder / The Purifying Mineral that assists to prevent Acne and Skin Conditions, promotes Healthy Hair, Nails and Skin, assists to combat Bacterial Infection, maintains proper Brain function and Liver Bile secretion. Cleans the Blood, as it is Anti - Septic, and assists Digestion and the Skin. Sulphur is found in Beans Dried, Beef, Cabbage, Eggs, Fish, Raspberries, Wheat and its by - product Bran, but triple Super - Phosphate and Sub Clover in the Wheat growing areas has removed Sulphur from the Food Chain. Garlic is specially good as it gives high protection from external and Internal Parasites and also provides many other Minerals and Amino Acids for Protein Metabolism.

Deficiency Signs: Acne, Boils, Jaundice, Liver Conditions, Psoriasis, Skin Disease, yellowish Skin and associated Headache and Sores. Allows Lice and other external Parasites to prosper and also creates a lack of proper Digestion of the feed due to it interfering with the action of the Amino Acids especially Cysteine and Mehionine.

Horses: Interferes with normal Growth in young Horses.

Treatment: 1 x Tablespoon of Sulphur a day for an average sized Horse / 450 kg until the Parasites disappear and also for Skin Ailments. Continue with the same for maintenance if required.

N.B: Sulphur should only be added to the feed at no more than 2% of the ration.


VANADIUM: Found in Alfalfa - Lucerne.


ZINC: 12 - 16mg - Decreases Cholesterol deposits, formation of Body Insulin, assists to avoid Prostrate Conditions, maintains Body Acid - Alkaline balance, accelerates healing, Tones Reproductive Organs and Brain function. A constituent of 2000 different Enzymes in the Body and is responsible for Digesting and Burning food. It is important for proper Sexual development in young children, and to prevent certain Prostate Gland Conditions in Men as they Age and is required as a micro - nutrient in Male Hormone production. Required for healthy Skin as Eczema is often linked to a deficiency.  

Horses: Required for the Reproductive System for Mares and especially Stallions. 

*Zinc is found in Beef, Brewer's Yeast, Cashews, Chicken, Cocoa, Dark Choclate, Eggs, Grains, Fruit, Kidney Beans, Lamb, Milk - Non - Fat dry, Mushrooms, Nuts, Oysters, Peanuts (high) Peanut Butter, Pine Seeds, Pork, Portabella, Pumpkin Seeds, Seafood, Sesame Seeds, Spinach, Squash Seeds, Red Meats, Vegetables of different colours, Wheat Germ, White Shitake, Whole Grain, Seaweed is the best source but Black Sunflowere Seeds and Wheat Germ also contain Viutamin E, which is important for Fertility,

N.B: Excess Zinc depresses the availability of Copper. 

Deficiency: Caused by Food Processing and Refining such as Whole Wheat Flour that naturally contains 4 times the Zinc found in Processed white flour and Cooking destroys over 40 % of the Zinc in Spinach and 80% in Tomatoes. A deficiency can also be related to an Excess of Copper such as in Hot Water Services or to Contraceptive devices. Increases the Body's utilization of its partner Vitamin A / The Skin Vitamin - 30mg of Zinc daily for 3 months and 10 - 30mg thereafter required.

Deficiency Signs: Acne and Skin Conditions, Aching Joints, Arteriosclerosis, Slow Immunity, Slow healing Wound Infections, Enlarged Prostrate Gland, Fatigue, White Spots under the Fingernails, Premature - Greying of Hair and Hair Loss and maybe Stretch Marks.

Zinc Sulphate is used as a Supplement, but Zinc is found naturally in Seaweed.


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