NUTRITION - 1
6 Main Inputs - CARBOHYDRATES - FATS - MINERALS - PROTEINS - VITAMINS - WATER
1. CARBOHYDRATES: There are 3 Types required to supply the Body with Energy and to form Cellular constituents and they should be 60% of the diet. Eat Fruit instead of Sugar!
(a) Polysaccharides: Complex and made up of many Carbohydrate units with the most common, Starch that comes from Grains, Corn, Rice, Wheat and Potatoes.
(b) Disaccharides: Double Sugar, Sucrose, Lactose and Maltose with Sucrose / Table Sugar the most consumed around 60kg a person per year, which makes it a health problem leading to Heart Disease and other Conditions.
(c) Monosaccharides: There are 3 types, Fructose, Galactose and Glucose, which is the most important, as all other Carbohydrates are either obtained from it or changed into it. Glucose is changed into Glycogen, which is stored in the Liver and Muscles and changed back to Glucose when the Body needs it.
N.B: A lack of Carbohydrate can lead to the production of Ketones in the Body, which decrease the Alkalinity and increase the Acidity of the Blood resulting in Ketosis and Metabolic Acidosis that can be very serious.
2. FATS: or Lipids produce twice as much Energy than Carbohydrate or Protein and are needed for the correct usage of Fat Soluble Vitamins A, D, E and K. It also insulates the Body against changes in Temperature and protects the vital Organs against damage. 40% of Calories are in the form of Fat and is important in the diet as it is absorbed at a slower rate than Carbohydrate or Protein and delays the feeling of hunger.
Fatty Acids: There are 2 Types. (a) Saturated Fat - mostly from Animals. (b) Unsaturated Fats including Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Vegetables, Nuts and Seeds. Essential Fatty Acids - There are 3 types, (a) Arachidonic, (b) Linolenic (c) Linoleic that are important as they cannot be manufactured in the Body but must be consumed daily.
3. PROTEIN: is the second most plentiful substance in the Body next to Water as it builds new Tissue and repairs damaged Cells. It also forms Hormones and Enzymes to create Metabolism, Growth and Sexual development and is used to regulate the Fluid Level in the Body to control the Acid / Alkaline level.
Amino Acids: there are 22 Amino Acids that are the building blocks of Protein, and of these there are two (2) types, Complete and Incomplete Proteins. *Complete supplies the 8 essential Amino Acids - (1) Lysine, (2) Trytophan, (3) Phenylalanine, (4) Methionine, (5) Threonine, (6) Leucine, (7) Isoluecine (8) Valine.
Eggs are the best source of Amino Acids (Complete Proteins) followed by Dairy Products and Meats. Vegetarians can obtain Protein from Seeds, Nuts and Lentils but it is best to vary the diet as Eggs, Dairy Products and Red Meats are high in Cholesterol while Egg Whites, Skim Milk, lean Meats and Fish is best. Almonds, Chick Beans, Dried Beans, Lentils, Peanut Butter, Pinto Kidney Beans, Pistachios ,Pumpkin Seeds, Rice, Soy Milk, Yoghurt,
Excess Salt in the diet increases Blood Pressure and Fluid Retention and therefore the Fluid levels in the Body are raised to excrete it through the Kidneys and the Blood volume in the Arteries is increased raising Blood Pressure and will lead onto Heart Disease if it is continued on.
4. VITAMINS: See under separate cover in their own section.
5. WATER: The Body is 70% Water and it is required to, form Blood and Body Fluids to carry the essential Nutrients to all parts of the Body, to maintain Temperature and carry off the wastes. 8 - 10 glasses should be consumed a day.
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