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                                                                                                                                          Seanchus of Celtic Ireland - 9               


     For the next 200 years after the departure of the 3 previously mentioned Scythian Nemedian groups from Ireland, it once again remained basically a wilderness.

     The Stone Circles had eventuated in the Megalithic period in Ireland and they were to serve as prehistoric temples for the holding of rituals from the Early Bronze Age, and among these are those at Loch Gur / Gair in Co. Limerick in the mid - north - west of the Munster Province and another two at Beltany Hill near Lifford / Leifear on the River Foyle in Co. Donegal in the north - west of the Ulster Province, and at Hollywood (St. Kevin's Little Church / Cillin Caemgen) in Co. Wicklow in the south - east of Southern Leinster. There is also another prehistoric Stone Circle at Drombeg situated 2 miles east of Glandore / Cuan Dor (Dor's Harbour) in Co. Cork in Southern Munster where it was used as an Early Bronze Age ritual site. A prehistoric fort / dun is also situated at Bally Kinvarga to the north - east of Kilfenora (Church of Fionnuir) Cill Fhionnurach in Co. Clare in the north - west of the Munster Province, where it is surrounded by sharp stones, known as Chevaux de Frise originally constructed as a stone defense and placed upright and spaced out to entangle any attackers, that measures 155' x 130' with walls up to 16' high. Earthen Circles were also used during this period to carry out their rituals, such as those at the Giant's Ring at Drumbo (Cow Ridge) Droim Bo  in Co. Down in the south - east of the Ulster Province on the River Lagan. It is 590' in diameter and 15' high taking in an area of about 10 acres surrounding the Megalith tomb there, which is a Dolmen with stone uprights and capstone.   

     At the beginning of this Millennium inter - related material Human cultures had existed, which spread across Europe with some degree of communication with the increasingly civilized World of the Eastern Mediterranean. Neolithic peoples in Temperate Europe continued on with cereal culture on the bottom land, while in the Upland country and over the Northern Europe plain, pastoral pursuits were now their way of life, which meant that there were existing at this time both pastoral and agricultural peoples with block wheel vehicles that may have been, or not been, drawn by Oxen.

    The Beaker People from the Mediterranean region, who were mostly pastoralists were utilising mainly sheep, and they ranged widely in Western Europe from Bohemia to Albion / Briton, where they were also using the Euro - Asiatic battle - axe, and early Neolithic pottery from the Western Mediterranean region. They were to penetrate other societies who had single grave burials, but not with covering barrows, who were also not metal workers, and although they were then to be hybrid cultures they were to evolve as the Battle - Axe People who were to become the most predominant in the end.

    Bronze Age / Early / Middle. During this period in time pastoralists with bronze weapons stayed in their own environment and had single grave barrow burials for their Chiefs, who now also had gold mounted weapons and ornaments, as the battle - axe began to become rare.

    Due to the increasing dryness of the climate in Temperate Europe there was also to be reduced agricultural settlement there.

    In the South Eastern Zone of Europe, Anatolia established a copper and bronze working early in this Millennium, and they were active along a passage through the Balkans and across the Middle Danube to the tributaries of the River Tisza and to Transylvania, where rich copper deposits were located and due to this various Bronze Age cultures were to come into existence in this region along the Middle Danube.

       The Celtic language prior to this time was known as Indo - European and from now on down to 1500 BC Old European. 


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